Ever so often, I get the feeling I really need to write about something specific; references to the topic pop up everywhere, I get asked questions about it, and the desire to write about anything else drops to an all-time low. So here we go: today's blog post is about Hestia and Dionysos, and who has the throne up on snowy Olympos.
There is a story floating about the internet and even some modern texts on Hellenic mythology, that Hestia gave up Her throne to Dionysos. Apparently, this is an ancient myth, and the ancient Hellenes would have believed this as well. It's a story so frequently told, one that is so common-knowledge, that very few people bother to check the source. Well, the source is Robert Graves
' 'The Greek Myths', written in 1955. From that book (27.12):
"Finally, having established his worship throughout the world, Dionysus ascended into Heaven, and now sits at the right hand of Zeus as one of the Twelve Great Gods. The self-effacing goddess Hestia resigned her seat at the high table in his favour; glad of any excuse to escape the jealous wranglings of her family, and knowing that she could always count on a quiet welcome in any Greek city which it might please her to visit."
Graves provides two sources for this story: Apollodoros’ Bibliotheka
3.5.3, and and Pausanias’ Hellados Periegesis
2.31.2. As you can read for yourself, there is no mention what so ever of Hestia giving up Her throne. In fact, the sources only address the part of Graves' text that follows afterwards, about Dionysos bringing His mother Semele up to Olympos as well.
So, did Graves lie? Well, yes and no. Graves is a storyteller; he spun stories based on facts he could find. If he could not find a fact, he made it up to fit the story. Because of this, his books are a great read, but they are not reliable as far as ancient mythology goes. As for The Twelve; there was never a set grouping of Them in ancient Hellas, what mattered was that there was a counsel of twelve, the Dodekatheon, at all. Who resided on the golden thrones was subject to debate, and varied per location.
The most canonical version of the Dodekatheon is represented in the relief above, currently located at the Walters Art Museum. The relief dates back to the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD and depicts the Twelve Olympians carrying their attributes in procession: from left to right, Hestia (scepter), Hermes (winged cap and staff), Aphrodite (veiled), Ares (helmet and spear), Demeter (scepter and wheat sheaf), Hephaestus (staff), Hera (scepter), Poseidon (trident), Athena (owl and helmet), Zeus (thunderbolt and staff), Artemis (bow and quiver), and Apollo (cithara). No mention of Dionysos.
Obviously, Theoi who were held in high regard in a certain city-state would have held the thrones, according to the people who lived in that city-state. This means that it's quite likely there were people in ancient Hellas who firmly believed that Dionysos occupied one of the thrones of the Dodekatheon. Most likely, there were also people who believed Hestia did not occupy one of the thrones. It's entirely possible that some people--perhaps even the same people who believed Dionysos was part of the Dodekatheon, but not Hestia--believed that Hestia gave up Her seat to Dionysos. The problem is that there are no ancient sources to support this, and there was most certainly not a wide-spread myth to this effect that held sway in ancient Hellas.
As a Traditional Hellenist, I place Hestia on Her throne, where she belongs, but this does not mean I do not welcome Her into my home
, that I feel She does not occupy the heart(h) of the house
, that I do not tend Her flame
, or that I do not offer to Her first and last whenever I make a sacrifice; She walks amongst mortals for sure, but that does not mean She does not voice Her opinions to the other Theoi from Her golden throne on Mount Olympos. It also does not mean that I feel Dionysos is in any way a lesser deity; He is a beautiful Theos with a wide domain, who was of vital importance to the ancient Hellenes. Just look at the Anthesteria.
Which position you take is up to you, of course, but I feel it is important to know where your believes find their base. I believed Graves' version of the Dodekatheon for years before discovering it was a modern invention. For me, that was enough to change my views, for others it might not be. The ancient Hellenes did not have a consensus on this, so I see no reason for us to come to one either. Still, the facts matter, so here they are.